Leshem Yichud Kidushu Ubrichu
Prayer for the unification of Hashem’s name through our learning
א הִנָּךְ יָפָה רַעְיָתִי, הִנָּךְ יָפָה, עֵינַיִךְ יוֹנִים מִבַּעַד לְצַמָּתֵךְ,
שַׂעְרֵךְ כְּעֵדֶר הָעִזִּים שֶׁגָּלְשׁוּ מֵהַר גִּלְעָד.
1 You are beautiful my love;
You are beautiful with eyes like a dove,
From behind your veil.
Your hair is like a flock of goats
Cascading down from Mount Gilead.
ב שִׁנַּיִךְ כְּעֵדֶר הַקְּצוּבוֹת שֶׁעָלוּ מִן הָרַחְצָה, שֶׁכֻּלָּם מַתְאִימוֹת וְשַׁכֻּלָה אֵין בָּהֶם.
2 Your teeth are arrayed like a flock of lambs
Having just come up from their wash,
All of them in harmony
And none have gone awry.
ג כְּחוּט הַשָּׁנִי שִׂפְתֹתַיִךְ וּמִדְבָּרֵיךְ נָאוֶה, כְּפֶלַח הָרִמּוֹן רַקָּתֵךְ מִבַּעַד לְצַמָּתֵךְ.
3 Your lips are like threads of scarlet
And your words are fair,
Like a slice of pomegranate is your brow
From behind your veil.
ד כְּמִגְדַּל דָּוִיד צַוָּארֵךְ, בָּנוּי לְתַלְפִּיּוֹת, אֶלֶף הַמָּגֵן תָּלוּי עָלָיו, כֹּל שִׁלְטֵי הַגִּבּוֹרִים.
4 Like the Tower of David is your neck,
Built for beauty and instruction,
Where a thousand shields hang,
All the shields of the mighty.
ה שְׁנֵי שָׁדַיִךְ כִּשְׁנֵי עֳפָרִים תְּאוֹמֵי צְבִיָּה, הָרוֹעִים בַּשּׁוֹשַׁנִּים.
5 Your two breasts are like two deer,
The twins of a gazelle
Pasturing among the roses.
ו עַד שֶׁיָּפוּחַ הַיּוֹם וְנָסוּ הַצְּלָלִים, אֵלֶךְ לִי אֶל הַר הַמּוֹר וְאֶל גִּבְעַת הַלְּבוֹנָה.
6 Before the day wafts away,
And the shadows flee,
To the Mountain of Myrrh, I will take Me,
To the Hill of the Frankincense bouquet.
ז כֻּלָּךְ יָפָה רַעְיָתִי וּמוּם אֵין בָּךְ.
7 All of you is beautiful, and you I adore,
And you are without a flaw
ח אִתִּי מִלְּבָנוֹן כַּלָּה, אִתִּי מִלְּבָנוֹן תָּבוֹאִי, תָּשׁוּרִי מֵרֹאשׁ אֲמָנָה, מֵרֹאשׁ שְׂנִיר וְחֶרְמוֹן, מִמְּעֹנוֹת אֲרָיוֹת, מֵהַרְרֵי נְמֵרִים.
8 To me from Lebanon, my bride,
To me from Lebanon come,
Gaze out from the peak of Amana,
And from the top of Snir and Hermon,
From the place where the lions roam
And from the mountains of the puma.
ט לִבַּבְתִּנִי אֲחֹתִי כַלָּה, לִבַּבְתִּינִי (באחד) בְּאַחַת מֵעֵינַיִךְ, בְּאַחַד עֲנָק מִצַּוְּרֹנָיִךְ.
9 You have captured My heart, My sister My bride,
You have captured My heart
With how you see the oneness of things,
And the love from on High that heartfelt prayer brings.
י מַה יָּפוּ דֹדַיִךְ אֲחֹתִי כַלָּה, מַה טֹּבוּ דֹדַיִךְ מִיַּיִן וְרֵיחַ שְׁמָנַיִךְ מִכָּל בְּשָׂמִים.
10 How exquisite was your love
O sister, O bride of Mine,
How much better is your love, all because of wine,
And from the scent of your oils suffused with spice.
יא נֹפֶת תִּטֹּפְנָה שִׂפְתוֹתַיִךְ כַּלָּה, דְּבַשׁ וְחָלָב תַּחַת לְשׁוֹנֵךְ, וְרֵיחַ שַׂלְמֹתַיִךְ כְּרֵיחַ לְבָנוֹן.
11 Your lips, My bride, drip with nectar
Honey and milk under your tongue,
And the scent of your good deeds
Wafts like the fragrance of Lebanon.
יב גַּן נָעוּל אֲחֹתִי כַלָּה, גַּל נָעוּל, מַעְיָן חָתוּם.
12 A garden locked up, is My sister, my bride,
A source of water set aside set aside;
A sealed spring of water never dried.
יג שְׁלָחַיִךְ פַּרְדֵּס רִמּוֹנִים עִם פְּרִי מְגָדִים, כְּפָרִים עִם נְרָדִים.
13 Your dry fields are a pomegranate orchard,
Bearing the sweetest of fruits,
Like henna with nard
יד נֵרְדְּ וְכַרְכֹּם, קָנֶה וְקִנָּמוֹן, עִם כָּל עֲצֵי לְבוֹנָה, מֹר וַאֲהָלוֹת עִם כָּל רָאשֵׁי בְשָׂמִים.
14 Nard and saffron,
Lemongrass and cinnamon,
With all the twigs of frankincense,
Myrrh and aloe,
With all the chief spices.
טו מַעְיַן גַּנִּים, בְּאֵר מַיִם חַיִּים, וְנֹזְלִים מִן לְבָנוֹן.
15 A garden spring,
A well of living water,
A stream flowing from Lebanon.
טז עוּרִי צָפוֹן וּבוֹאִי תֵימָן, הָפִיחִי גַנִּי יִזְּלוּ בְשָׂמָיו, יָבֹא דוֹדִי לְגַנּוֹ וְיֹאכַל פְּרִי מְגָדָיו.
16 Awaken north wind,
And come [wind] from the south,
Blow upon My garden,
And its fragrance will spread out.
May my Beloved come to His garden,
And partake of the sweet fruits of Eden.
The fourth chapter of Shir HaShirim deals with the highlights of our history – the giving and receiving of Torah, the building of the Temple, communion with God via Torah and mitzvot, the souls of tsaddikim and the delight that God has in them, and finally the Resurrection of the Dead.
4:1 הִנָּךְ יָפָה רַעְיָתִי – You are beautiful my love
A long section in the Zohar discusses the various heichalot (literally, ‘chambers’), which the Zohar also describes as levels of ascent of the soul, primarily during prayer, the purpose of which is “to behold the sweetness of God and to visit with [Him in] His Sanctuary (heichalo)” (Psalms 27:4). The sixth of these chambers Heichal haRatzon (the Chamber of Divine Will, for reasons that will be explained later) is also referred as the Chamber of Moshe in which he cleaves to the Shechinah: It was to this chamber the soul of Moses was gather in with love at the time of his passing. He passed on with the kiss of death, and his soul clung to the Shechinah, in the secret of kissing the kiss – the same cleaving to the Shechinah that he achieved during his life. Regarding this Chamber the verse (Exodus 19:19) states that it was here that “Moshe would speak, and Elokim would respond to him with a voice.” This is the gist of the conversation in these verses – Moshe would utter the praises of the Shechinah and God, through the Name Elokim, would respond to him out loud. This is the cleaving together in the spiritual embrace of kissing called yichud neshikin, and regarding this, the verse (Shir haShirim 1:2) states: “He will kiss me with the kisses of his mouth….” for there is no kiss in joy and in love other than when the lovers cleave to one another, mouth to mouth in communion akin to conversation (the aspect of malchut), and spirit to spirit, and then they gratify each other with all types of delight from the aspect of chochmah, and with great joy from the aspect of binah illuminated from above, from keter, with the revelation of the Divine Will. This is the state of Divine ecstasy that Moshe achieved during his lifetime.
The Zohar now cites several verses from Shir haShirim to illustrate the idea just expressed:
Come and see: “Moshe would speak” – he would utter the praises of the Shechinah – as it is written here: ‘You are beautiful my love’ and ‘Your lips are like threads of scarlet’ alluding to cleaving with a kiss – yichud neshikin, as explained above. “And Elokim malchut, the Shechinah would respond to him with a voice” with her own praises of Moshe mentioned in other verses: “You are handsome, my beloved, a pleasing figure (Shir haShirim 1:16), and “Your lips are like roses dripping with myrrh flowing out” (Shir haShirim 5:13).
Thus the communion between Moshe and the Shechinah was an expression of love at a very lofty level – yichud neshikin. And because of that, this spirit to which Moshe cleaved in yichud neshikin imparted to him all the secrets of those lofty souls that longed passionately to devote themselves to God, to the point of mesirut nefesh – giving up their very lives in order to remain faithful to Him, in love for the One above the attribute of love characterizing ze’ir anpin, the innate love the soul has for God, and its desire to cleave to Him, and love for that which is below – the attribute of love characterizing malchut, the love the body has for fulfilling the Commandments of the Torah (primarily done with the physical body) as one. Both of them were ultimately a single expression of love, like that of those lofty souls such as Rabbi Akiva and his colleagues the Ten Martyrs put to death by the Romans emperor Hadrian, may his name rot.
(Zohar II, 254a)
4:1הִנָּךְ יָפָה רַעְיָתִי, הִנָּךְ יָפָה, עֵינַיִךְ יוֹנִים – You are beautiful my love, you are beautiful with eyes like a dove
He Rabbi Shimon began his discourse and said to the Almighty: Master of the Worlds, with Your permission I will reveal hidden mysteries of Yours, and therefore גַּל עֵינַי וְאַבִּיטָה נִפְלָאוֹת מִתּוֹרָתֶךָ – ‘Open my eyes, so that I can behold wonders from Your Torah’ (Psalms 119:18) that will enable me to express my praises of Your bride the Shechinah with these rectifications expressed in the words of praise for her and for those dependent upon her, the various angels that are listed by her in her cohort. For she is Your gateway by which to ascend to You, as the verse (Psalms 119:20) states זֶה הַשַּׁעַר לַה’ צַדִּיקִים יָבֹאוּ בוֹ – “this is the gateway to God, through which the righteous enter” in order to behold Your countenance, which is the sefirah of tiferet, Your beauty. Regarding this –the Shechinah – our verse states, ‘you the Shechinah are beautiful with eyes like a dove.’ Certainly like a dove, for doves nurture each other’s bodies and wings, and in the bond that they form they are distinguishable from all other birds. Alternatively, when a dove flaps its wings, they move so fast that it looks like an embroidered cloth. And so too, the Shechinah – even when she descends in to the World of Beriah she remains distinguishable from all the other powers and forces there.
In addition, the Shechinah can be compared to a dove for another reason as well – no other birds are as faithful to their partner as doves. And so too the Shechinah – even when she descends into the lower worlds, she does not exchange her Partner i.e. God (but technically God as reflected in ze’ir anpin) for another. Thus we see that the eyes of a dove are wide open and gaze directly into those of her partner. Similarly, the wings of doves are comparable to their eyelids, in the sense that just as the eyelids of the dove are always open while she gazes at her partner, so too, her wings spread out to bring her to her partner. And therefore the ‘eyes’ of the Shechinah are called doves because they gaze only upon her Partner (technically ze’ir anpin) and she flies only up to Him.
(Zohar Chadash, Yitro 39b)
4:2 שַׂעְרֵךְ כְּעֵדֶר הָעִזִּים שֶׁגָּלְשׁוּ מֵהַר גִּלְעָד – Your hair is like a flock of goats cascading down from Mount Gilead
The Zohar does not offer commentary on this section of the verse, but the Arizal explains that this alludes to Moshe (Moses) and his conversations with God (consistent with the explanations offered above): There are 15 occasions that the Torah states וַיְדַבֵּר ה’ אֶל מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר (“And God spoke to Moshe saying…”) Now the word וַיְדַבֵּ”ר has the gematria of 222, the same numerical value as the word רכ”ב (vehicle or chariot), indicating that Moshe was the vehicle through which the word of God would reach the people. And 15 X 222 = 3,330, the numerical value of גל”ש, the root word of גָּלְשׁוּ – cascading down (where theג represents 3,000). Accordingly, this verse about the locks of hair cascading down to us alludes to the myriad laws of the Torah, as the Sages and the Zohar itself explain on a later verse (Shir HaShirim 5:11) קְווּצּוֹתָיו תַּלְתַּלִּים שְׁחֹרוֹת כָּעוֹרֵב – “His locks are curly, and black as a raven” – these are the piles upon piles of halachot.
(Arizal, Sefer HaLikutim, Zot haB’racha, 2)
4:2 שִׁנַּיִךְ כְּעֵדֶר הַקְּצוּבוֹת שֶׁעָלוּ מִן הָרַחְצָה, שֶׁכֻּלָּם מַתְאִימוֹת – Your teeth are arrayed like a flock of lambs having just come up from their wash, all of them in harmony…
What is the meaning of ‘having just come up from their wash’? From that cleansing when the radiance of the Holy Eye above the ‘eye’ of Atik Yomin shines upon them. Conceptually the eyes represent the Elders who are referred to as “the eyes of the community” (einei ha’eida), due to their insight and foresight. More specifically the holy eye refers, as in the previous verse, to Moshe, who is referred to as ‘one with a good eye…’
A previous explanation in the same section illuminates this passage, which otherwise would remain quite cryptic: We have learned that no light that illuminates the lower level of seeing – the vision of lesser sages (technically, the eyes of ze’ir anpin) – alternatively, the vision of common people can wash clean and rectify this lower level of insight and foresight from its redness harsh judgment and blackness lack of insight altogether than when it is cleansed by the pure (literally ‘white’) light of the supernal ‘eye’ of Atik Yomin, which is referred to in the verse (Proverbs 22:9) as “One with a good eye will be blessed, for he has given of his bread to the poor.” In this same passage the Zohar suggests that we not read this as ‘will be blessed’ but rather as ‘will bless,’ because if not for ‘the good eye above’ that looks out for and cleanses the lower eye, the world could not exist for even a moment since the harsh judgments and lack of insight and foresight would render catastrophic results in the world, as the Zohar goes on to clarify.
We have learned in Sifra d’Tziniuta (‘The Book of Concealed Matters’ – a highly recondite section of the Zohar on the first parsha of the first book of the Zohar) that the lower eyes look out for the world’s benefit when the light of the upper eyes gaze upon them and illuminate them with its supernal light, for then everything is illuminated, as the verse (Numbers 14:14) states, “You, O God are in the midst of this people; You have appeared to them eye to eye…”
Returning to our text, the Zohar continues: “All of them in harmony” the array of all of the various spiritual powers and forces are harmonized with one another, and conjoin in order to manifest Divine compassion (rachamim) in the world.
However, this thesis raises a question: why then does our verse use the expression “Your teeth are arrayed (הַקְּצוּבוֹת – haketzuvot) like a flock of lambs – which seems to imply that each of them is distinct and segregated (katzuv) from the others, and yet you declare, “All of them in harmony” implying that they all act in accord as one?! However, the intention is this: they – the lesser sages, or even the common people, the flocks, compared to teeth which are the aspect of harshness and severity – are illuminated with that same clarity and brightness when they are cleansed by the supernal eyes that harmonize them into a single entity ready to receive Divine compassion.
(Idra Rabba Zohar III, 137a; 130a)
4:3 כְּחוּט הַשָּׁנִי שִׂפְתֹתַיִךְ – Your lips are like threads of scarlet
As explained in our commentary to 4:1 above, the Zohar describes seven chambers, or levels of ascent of the soul, primarily during prayer. The sixth of these chambers Heichal haRatzon is also referred as the Chamber of Moshe in which he cleaves to the Divine Presence with great love, a very lofty level of communion referred to as yichud neshikin. Accordingly, this spirit of yearning to cleave to the Divine Presence is also called ‘the thread of scarlet,’ as the verse states, “Your lips are like threads of scarlet” and it is called Heichal haRatzon, the Chamber of the Will, for all of the lower levels of soul pursue it this level of will, which corresponds to the level of the soul called Chaya or neshamah l’neshama, to cleave thereto with the kiss of great love.
(Zohar I, 44b)
Alternatively, the thread of scarlet alludes to the story of the time when Joshua sent two spies to assess how they would conquer Jericho and then the Land of Israel (Joshua chapter 2). The spies lodged at an inn owned by a woman named Rahav. The king of Jericho found out that the spies were lodging at Rahav’s inn and sent soldiers to capture them. But Rahav recognized that God had given the land to the Israelites and she acknowledged Him as the only God so she hid the spies on her roof. Then she begged them to repay her kindness to them by saving the lives of her entire family: “Now, I beseech you, swear to me by God, since I have done kindness with you, that you too will do kindness with my father’s household, and give me a true sign that you will keep us alive…” (Joshua 2:12-13).
The Zohar continues: The young son of the innkeeper where Rabbi Abba was lodging asked him, “When Rahav the innkeeper said, ‘give me a true sign’ – what was she asking them for?” Rabbi Abba replied, “That’s a good question! If you know the answer, please say so.”
The boy then asked again: “And furthermore, they actually gave her something that she didn’t ask them for, as the verse (Joshua 2:18) states, ‘You shall tie this thread of scarlet in the window…’ – she asked for a true sign, and they told her to tie a thread of scarlet in the window?!”
The boy then answered: “This is what I learned – she requested a sign with which to live, which is the letter vav of the Ineffable Name, which is called ‘the letter of Truth’, as the verse states, ‘a true sign that you will keep us alive’ and she declared that the true sign for life is only the Letter of Truth. And what is the Letter of Truth? This is the letter vav of the Name, which corresponds to the sefirah of tiferet and is called the Tree of Life. And thus we learned that she requested from them the sign of Moshe, for this was the letter in which he was rooted, and he was the disseminator of truth, as the Sages of the Midrash declare, “Moshe is Truth and his Torah is Truth. But why did they give her a scarlet thread which represents only malchut? Because they the spies told her, ‘Moshe is no longer in this world. The sun tiferet, of Moshe has set, and now is the time for the moon malchut, Joshua to reign. Therefore they gave her the sign of the moon malchut. What is the sign of the moon? The scarlet thread of hope, as the verse states “Your lips are like threads of scarlet.”
Rabbi Abba and Rabbi Yose who had come to study with Rabbi Abba arose and kissed the young boy, saying ‘You shall surely become the head of an academy one day, or a great rabbi among the Israelites.’ And who was he? He grew up to become Rabbi Bon mentioned numerous times in the Talmud Yerushalmi, and also known as Rabbi Abin and Rabin in the Talmud Bavli.
(Zohar I, 241b, Mikdash Melech)
4:3 וּמִדְבָּרֵיךְ נָאוֶה – And your words are fair
Rabbi Elazar began his discourse, citing the verse (Shir HaShirim 3:6) “But who is this, ascending from the wilderness?” ‘Who’ (mi) and ‘this’ (zot) represent two holy paths and two worlds – mi? represents the search to understand that which is beyond one’s grasp, but about which one can ask, ‘Who is this?’ But zot represents the task of describing clearly and precisely that which can be known and pointed to – ‘this.’ Technically ‘who’ (mi) refers to binah, while ‘this’ (zot) refers to malchut. They represent two types of holiness, so that the latter is called ‘holy’ while the former is called ‘the holy of holies.’ But when they are united as one, when malchut, which is the aspect of speech as the Tikunei Zohar (Intro. 17a) states, ‘malchut is the mouth, and we call it the Oral Torah,’ and ‘binah (understanding) which is the heart, by means of which the heart understands’ – when they are united, so that the person speaks with the understanding of the heart, then she malchut ascends from the wilderness and merges with binah, thus becoming the holy of holies, and the daughter (malchut) becomes like her mother (binah), as the verse (Ezekiel 16:44) states: הִנֵּה כָּל הַמֹּשֵׁל עָלַיִךְ יִמְשֹׁל לֵאמֹר כְּאִמָּה בִּתָּהּ – “All those who speak in parables, will use this parable about you, saying, ‘Like mother, like daughter.’”
Now when the verse states, ‘from the wilderness,’ this means by virtue of the Torah and Mitzvot (Commandments) that they received in the wilderness, and by virtue of the Mishkan (the Tabernacle) they built in the desert, by virtue of which they became like a bride entering the wedding canopy (the Tabernacle). By virtue of the mitzvot the Israelites in the desert merited to rectify malchut so that she could ascend to a far higher level – to the level of binah.
Furthermore, we can also interpret the word midbar (desert) as stemming from the root dibbur – ‘speaking,’ because through speaking out loud the words of Torah she malchut also ascends, and this we learn from our verse וּמִדְבָּרֵיךְ נָאוֶה – literally ‘your desert is fair’ can be interpreted as “and your words are fair” – these are the words spoken through whispering lips – the method of Torah study at night, which is done in a whisper, rather than out loud. Or alternatively through prayer, which is uttered in a whisper.
(Zohar, Intro. 10a-b)
4:3 כְּפֶלַח הָרִמּוֹן רַקָּתֵךְ – Like a slice of pomegranate is your brow
Like a slice of pomegranate is your brow – the word for ‘your brow’ – רַקָּתֵךְ /rakatech, is related to the word רֵיק (reik), alluding to even the ‘empty’ among the Israelites are filled with Torah and Mitzvot like a pomegranate is filled with seeds.
(Zohar Chadash [Margolias] 83b)
4:3 מִבַּעַד לְצַמָּתֵךְ – From behind your veil
The Zohar does not offer an interpretation of this phrase. However, the Midrash explains that it refers to the Israelites who diminished themselves (tzimtzmu atzman – phonetically similar to tzamatech) with every word of the Ten Commandments God uttered. Rather than standing their ground arrogantly, they retreated in awe and fear and trembling. Alternatively, they squeeze together (mitztamtin) to stand in a crowded Synagogue to drink the words of Torah thirstily (b’tzama).
(Shir HaShirim Rabba 4:5; Midrash Aggada Bereishit, 80)
4:4 כְּמִגְדַּל דָּוִיד צַוָּארֵךְ – Like the Tower of David is your neck
The verse does not state, ‘the tower of David’ which he built in Jerusalem, but rather ‘like the tower of David.’ Accordingly this refers to the supernal Jerusalem, regarding which the verse (Proverbs 18:10) states, “the Name of God [Havaye] is a tower of strength; a righteous person will run into it and be safe.” Who will be safe? Not the righteous person, but the tower – i.e. the Name of God – because the righteous tsaddik runs into it.
Elsewhere the Zohar explains why the righteous tsaddik needs to protect the Name of God: Rabbi Yehuda began: The verse states, ‘Come and see the works of Elokim who has wrought shamot – destruction – upon the Earth.’ Had the verse stated ‘Come and see the works of Havaye’ [the Ineffable Name] then we would have read the word as Shemot – Holy Divine Names which would bring prophecy and enlightenment to man. But since the verse uses the Name Elokim, we read it as shamot – destruction.
Rabbi Chiya replied: I don’t understand it that way, because since we are anyway talking about a Divine Name [the Name Elokim] this is all in praise of the Almighty. But I understand it the same way our colleagues understood it – ‘He granted us Shemot – Holy Divine Names – on earth for us to use in order to sustain the world.
Rabbi Yitzchak then added: Both interpretations can be accepted, and what Rabbi Yehuda said is also correct in that if the world was created with the Name of Compassion [the Name Havaye] it would be self-sustaining. But since it was created with the Name signifying strict justice [the Name Elokim], He granted us Shemot – Holy Divine Names – on earth for us to use in order to sustain the world. Without this the world would not be able to exist due to the sins of man.
Thus the tsaddik ensures that the Ineffable Name of God, the Name of compassion, is manifested in the world through his actions, and in this sense he protects the Name.
‘Is your neck’ refers to the Temple below, because – just like the neck which joins the head to the body, so that the neck is the beauty of the body, so too the Temple regarding which the verse (Exodus 25:8) states: וְעָשׂוּ לִי מִקְדָּשׁ וְשָׁכַנְתִּי בְּתוֹכָם – “Build Me a Temple, and I will dwell among them” – thus connecting the Almighty to the world, which is the beauty of the entire world.
(Zohar I, 209b, Ramak; Matok MiDevash)
4:4 בָּנוּי לְתַלְפִּיּוֹת, אֶלֶף הַמָּגֵן תָּלוּי עָלָיו, כֹּל שִׁלְטֵי הַגִּבּוֹרִים – Built for beauty and instruction, where a thousand shields hang, all the shields of the mighty
Rabbi said: The meaning of this verse is that all things will eventually expire, but the Torah will not expire. There is nothing more beloved to the blessed Holy One than the Torah and those who study it, as we have learned: ‘Anyone who occupies himself with Torah every day will learn new secrets from above, as the Torah says to him (Shir HaShirim 8:2): ‘I will give you spiced wine and the juice of My pomegranates’ – this is the wine the secrets of Torah, which is ‘the wine that has been guarded in the grape from the six days of Creation.’ These are matters that will be revealed to righteous tsaddikim in the future.
Rabbi Bo arose and said: If that is so, then it should have said ‘the wine that has been guarded in the grape from Mount Sinai! Why does it say, from the six days of Creation?
Rabbi replied: These are the secrets of Creation that have not yet been revealed to man, but in the future tsaddikim – like those who study Torah constantly – will be aware of them…
Said Rabbi Yitzchak… We have learned that the blessed Holy One appointed an angel Metatron, the Guardian Angel of Israel, as His subordinate, and made all of the other hosts of angels dependent upon him (i.e. Metatron was put in charge of them. This is the meaning of ‘where a thousand shields hang; all the shields of the mighty’ referring to Metatron), just like the rest of the body is dependent upon the neck, for the neck is the channel though which the brain directs the body. When tsaddikim are occupied with Torah, the blessed Holy One builds His world, since Torah is what sustains the world, as the Talmud (Shabbat 88a) declares: ‘The blessed Holy One made Creation conditional upon the Jewish People accepting the Torah. If they did not, He would return all of creation to a state of chaos. And He places His Name within him within Metatron, as the verse (Exodus 23:21) states, כִּי שְׁמִי בְּקִרְבּוֹ “My Name is within him” – this is the Holy Name שד”י, which has the same gematria (numerical value) as מטטרו”ן = 314, indicating that the outflow from the Omnipresent One will be sufficient (דַי) for the world. But when tsaddikim are not occupied with Torah, then the world misses out… From where do we know this? It is written in our verse, כְּמִגְדַּל דָּוִיד צַוָּארֵךְ, בָּנוּי לְתַלְפִּיּוֹת – ‘Like the Tower of David is your neck, built for beauty and instruction…’ When tsaddikim proliferate and magnify (megadlim – from the same root as migdal = tower) the Torah, making it like a tower, immediately ‘your neck is built for beauty and instruction.’ This is the ‘neck’ for the world i.e. which connects the Head (God) with the body (the world), built as a holy edifice of instruction and enlightenment for all mouths that become weary נִלְאוּ attempting to fathom His Divine Providence, as the verse (Genesis 47:13) states, וַתֵּלַהּ אֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם “And Egypt became weary from hunger…”
(Zohar Chadash, Midrash Hane’elam [Margolias] 28a)
Alternatively, the word תַלְפִּיּוֹת can be read as two words: תֵּל פִּיּוֹת – literally ‘the hill of mouths,’ in other words, the hill that all mouths in the world praise and pray towards, i.e. the Temple (that was built on top of a hill) through which all prayers to the Holy One ascend.
(Zohar I, 209b)
4:4 אֶלֶף הַמָּגֵן תָּלוּי עָלָיו, כֹּל שִׁלְטֵי הַגִּבּוֹרִים – Where a thousand shields hang, all the shields of the mighty
These are the thousand tikunim adornments or garments that properly adorn the Temple, i.e. the ten sefirot of malchut which are each comprised of ten levels, and they in turn each comprise 10 levels = 10x10x10 = 1,000 – these are all the proper receptacles for the outflow from the higher sefirot that accrue due to the Temple service (particularly via the offerings on the altar). And why are they called the shields of the mighty? This is because they all stem from the side of harsh judgment (gevurah). The Kabbalists point out that this alludes to the fact that the primary rectification of malchut is through the gevurot in which she is adorned, and therefore they rectify her. Just like a woman wears her best jewelry around her neck, so too, all the adornments of the world that are the receptacles for the Divine outflow are dependent upon the Temple which is compared to the neck of a righteous woman.
(Zohar I, 209b)
4:5 שְׁנֵי שָׁדַיִךְ כִּשְׁנֵי עֳפָרִים תְּאוֹמֵי צְבִיָּה – Your two breasts are like two deer, the twins of a gazelle
These are the two Tablets of the Torah upon which the Ten Commandments are written. They are compared to breasts because just like a mother’s breasts are vital to the infant’s nurture, allowing it to grow and flourish, so too, the Tablets were vital for the spiritual growth and flourishing of the Israelites.
(Tikunei Zohar, 14a)
Alternatively, from His right hand so to speak – the aspect of chesed – the Written Torah was given, and from His left hand so to speak – the aspect of gevurah – the Oral Torah was given, regarding which it states, “Your two breasts are like two deer, the twins of a gazelle…
(Tikunei Zohar, 146a)
4:5 הָרוֹעִים בַּשּׁוֹשַׁנִּים – Pasturing among the roses
Among those who constantly study Torah.
(Zohar II, 20b)
4:6 עַד שֶׁיָּפוּחַ הַיּוֹם וְנָסוּ הַצְּלָלִים, אֵלֶךְ לִי אֶל הַר הַמּוֹר וְאֶל גִּבְעַת הַלְּבוֹנָה – Before the day wafts away and the shadows flee, to the Mountain of Myrrh, I will take Me, and to the Hill of the Frankincense bouquet.
Rabbi Isaac began his discourse: This verse refers to the exile of the Jewish People who are enslaved literally or figuratively in exile until the day that the domination of the nations of the world over us ceases – this is the explanation of ‘before the day wafts away,’ which he interprets as ‘until the day wafts away.’ For we learned in a Beraita a rabbinical teaching: Rabbi Isaac said that the dominion of all the nations over Israel lasts for only a thousand years. But because of our transgressions (which give power to the unholy side) they were given more and more time, so that there is no nation that has not dominated Israel at one time or another. That thousand year period is a single day to Him, as it is written (Zechariah 14:7) “It will be a unique day, it will be known as the Lord’s day.
Another interpretation: ‘Before the day wafts away’ – before the completion of the day the thousand years – that are like one day to the blessed Holy One – of the nations of the world, and ‘before the shadows flee’ – referring to their leaders, who still rule over us in Israel and Jerusalem before they flee. Says the blessed Holy One, ‘I will take Me’ to shake them out of Jerusalem, which is Har haMor, Mount Moriah in Jerusalem, and to the Hill of Frankincense, which is the Holy Temple in which frankincense was offered twice daily as one of the ingredients of the ketoret (the incense). Ridding the land of those villains is as the verse (Job 38:13) states לֶאֱחֹז בְּכַנְפוֹת הָאָרֶץ וְיִנָּעֲרוּ רְשָׁעִים מִמֶּנָּה – “to grasp the edges of the earth and shake the wicked from it” – like one shakes the dust off a garment.
(Zohar II, 17a)
4:7 כֻּלָּךְ יָפָה רַעְיָתִי וּמוּם אֵין בָּךְ – All of you is beautiful, and you I adore, and you are without a flaw
‘All of you is beautiful, and you I adore,’ refers to Knesset Yisrael, the community of Israel, i.e. the Jewish People as a whole, ‘and you are without a flaw’ refers to the Great Sanhedrin, the Jewish ‘Supreme Court’ comprising 71 judges, regarding whom the great Sage Rabbi Yochanan declared: No one was accepted as a member of the Sanhedrin unless they were of lofty stature [so that the people would naturally fear them], wise, of pleasant appearance, advanced in age [so they would be respected – Rashi], expert in sorcery [so they could identify those who were brought before them as sorcerers – Rashi], fluent in seventy languages so they could hear testimony first-hand, not via a translator [these were the spoken languages of the world at that time, so that they could hear first-hand from witnesses who spoke other languages – Rashi]. These members of the Sanhedrin correspond to the seventy souls who accompanied Jacob when he went down to Egypt, and the blessed Holy One above them. This perhaps resolves a dispute between Rabbi Yehuda and the Sages, where Rabbi Yehuda argued that there were only 70 members of the Sanhedrin, and the Sages countered that there were seventy plus Moshe (as God’s representative) at the head of the Sanhedrin, making 71. The Zohar here implies that there need not be any argument between them at all. All agree that there were 70 judges, and the disagreement is only whether the Judge of judges should be counted as a 71st or not.
(Zohar III, 34b)
Alternatively, this refers to the Torah, which is perfect, so that if any fool comes along and disparages the Master (God)that made the Garment (Torah), saying that it is missing something, behold the verse Psalms 19:8 states: תּוֹרַת יְהוָה תְּמִימָה – ‘God’s Torah is perfect’ – perfect in all the ‘limbs’ of her body, which are the 248 Positive Commandments to which the 248 limbs and organs of human beings correspond, and our verse states, וּמוּם אֵין בָּךְ – ‘and you are without a flaw’ refers to her the Torah’s garments the teachings of the Mishnah and the rest of the Oral Torah which tell us how to apply the Commandments.
(Zohar III, 27b Raya Mehemna)
Alternatively, this refers to the souls of the righteous and their good deeds and their avoidance of sin: Rabbi Yehuda declared: The righteous are filled with confidence and joy when they leave this world together with their worthy deeds – the aforementioned 248 Positive Commandments. When they the members of the Heavenly Court come to examine that soul, they do not rebuke it at all. What do they say to her? כֻּלָּךְ יָפָה רַעְיָתִי וּמוּם אֵין בָּךְ – “All of you is beautiful, and you I adore, and you are without a flaw.” Rabbi Abahu said: This is true of the 365 Prohibitions of the Torah as well: A righteous tsaddik, after a thorough self-examination, says to his soul, “All of you is beautiful, and you I adore,” because I conducted myself in such a way as to not besmirch you my soul with evil actions – those that are prohibited by the Torah and the Sages. Thus the verse states, “and you my soul are without a flaw.”
(Zohar Chadash, [Margolias] Midrash haNe’elam 17b)
4:8 אִתִּי מִלְּבָנוֹן כַּלָּה, אִתִּי מִלְּבָנוֹן תָּבוֹאִי – To me from Lebanon, my bride, to me from Lebanon come
Rabbi Abahu began his discourse with this verse, ‘To me from Lebanon, my bride, to me from Lebanon come’ and this is what he said: Once the body has been fully rebuilt at the time of Techiyat haMeitim (the Resurrection of the Dead) they will bring it to receive its soul in Israel where the soul awaits it and goes out to greet it the body, as the verse (Genesis 24:63) states, “And Yitzchak Isaac went out to meditate in the field towards evening. He raised his eyes and saw…” Rivkah (Rebecca) approaching, accompanied by Eliezer (Abraham’s servant) and his camels. This is the meaning of “to me from Lebanon, my bride” – referring to the soul (‘to me’) which goes out to the borders of the Holy Land from Levanon (Lebanon, referring to the Temple, as will be explained below) to which the body (‘my bride’) is brought at that time.
(Zohar I, 128b in Midrash Ne’elam)
4:8 תָּשׁוּרִי מֵרֹאשׁ אֲמָנָה – Gaze out from the peak of Amana
The Zohar now continues with the above theme: “Gaze out from the peak of Amana” – this is as the verse (ibid.) states, “He raised his eyes and saw…” Rivkah, etc. Rabbi Yehuda said: If this indeed refers to the soul, granted this would be the correct interpretation if the verse referred to Avraham, as we learned earlier in the section that the soul is called Avraham. But what about Yitzchak – how does the soul allude to Isaac?
Rabbi Abahu said: The friends – the circle of Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai and his colleagues and disciples – explain that now the soul is called Yitzchak Isaac because of the tzechok the joy and laughter that will ensue at that time. Initially in this world the soul is called Abraham, and the body is called Sarah. But now at the time of the Resurrection the soul is called Yitzchak, and the body is called Rivkah.
We have learned, Rabbi Shimon said that for forty years prior to the resurrection of the body the soul in Israel awaits the body. And where does it wait? In the place of the Beit HaMikdash the Temple, which is called Levanon (Lebanon), and the soul goes out of the Beit HaMikdash to the borders of the Holy Land to await the resurrected body, similar to the way Yitzchak went out to the fields to (unknowingly) await Rivkah.
Rabbi Abahu said: Come and see, the verse (Genesis 24:67) states “He took Rivkah in marriage and she became his wife, and he loved her. Yitzchak was then consoled after his mother’s passing”. In the context of the time of the Resurrection, this means that he the soul will love the body and be comforted by her, and it will then be a time of laughter and joy in the world.
(Zohar I, 129a in Midrash Ne’elam)
4:8 אִתִּי מִלְּבָנוֹן כַּלָּה, אִתִּי מִלְּבָנוֹן תָּבוֹאִי, תָּשׁוּרִי מֵרֹאשׁ אֲמָנָה, מֵרֹאשׁ שְׂנִיר וְחֶרְמוֹן, מִמְּעֹנוֹת אֲרָיוֹת, מֵהַרְרֵי נְמֵרִים – With me from Lebanon, My complete one, with Me from Lebanon come; with My gift from the peak of Amana, and from the top of Snir and Hermon, from the place where the lions roam, and from the mountains of the puma.
An alternative explanation (and therefore an alternative translation) of the verse: Rabbi Chiya began his discourse with our verse: This verse refers to Knesset Yisrael the Shechinah. When the Israelites left Egypt and neared Mount Sinai where they would receive the Torah, the blessed Holy One said to the Shechinah: ‘With me from Lebanon come,’ meaning: ‘Come together with Me from supernal Eden from which she the Shechinah comes. And she is called ‘My complete one’ like the full moon whose blemish is filled completely by the entire spectrum of light from the sun. ‘Come with Me’ from Levanon – a word elided from lev (alluding to the ל”ב = 32 paths of chochmah) and nun (alluding to the נו”ן = 50 gates of binah) so that your children the Israelites can receive the Torah which encompasses the 32 paths of chochmah and the 50 gates of binah.
– תָּשׁוּרִי מֵרֹאשׁ אֲמָנָה With My gift from the peak of Amana: In this interpretation, the word should not be read as תָּשׁוּרִי (gaze) but rather as תְּשׁוּרִי – ‘My gift’ – as the verse (I Samuel 9:7) states וּתְשׁוּרָה אֵין לְהָבִיא – ‘We haven’t a gift (teshura) to bring…’ Similarly in our verse, תְּשׁוּרִי should be understood as ‘My gift’ – thus receive My gift for your children who will accept the Torah, unlike the descendants of Edom (Esau) and Ishmael who were offered the Torah first, but refused it. But the Israelites – the children of the Shechinah called Knesset Yisrael – were willing to accept the Torah, and therefore ‘accept My gift for them’ from the top of Amana – from those who arose to express their faith emunah (אֱמֻנָה –faith has the same letters as אֲמָנָה) and said (Exodus 24:7) כֹּל אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר ה’ נַעֲשֶׂה וְנִשְׁמָע – “Whatever God says we will do and we will hear.” At that point the ministering angels descended and tied two crowns upon each of their heads and they were equal to the supernal angels regarding whom the verse (Psalms 103:20) statesבָּרֲכוּ ה’ מַלְאָכָיו גִּבֹּרֵי כֹחַ עֹשֵׂי דְבָרוֹ לִשְׁמֹעַ בְּקוֹל דְּבָרוֹ – “Bless the Lord, His angels; the mighty warriors who do His bidding, obeying the expression of His word.” Then Knesset Yisrael – the Shechinah – received a gift the crowns that the angels placed upon their heads.
מֵרֹאשׁ שְׂנִיר וְחֶרְמוֹן – from the top of Snir and Hermon: This refers to Mount Sinai which is called ‘Snir’ – alluding to the idea of שׂוֹנֵא נִיר – ‘despising the yoke’ since only those who occupy themselves with Torah can be regarded as free. And it is also called ‘Hermon’ because it was there that the other nations נחרמו became isolated (from the blessed Holy One) because they refused to accept His Torah. But the Israelites brought themselves closer to it to Mount Sinai, and stood firmly at its base, as the verse (Exodus 19:17) states: וַיִּתְיַצְּבוּ בְּתַחְתִּית הָהָר
מִמְּעֹנוֹת אֲרָיוֹת, מֵהַרְרֵי נְמֵרִים – From the place the lions are at home, and from the mountains of the puma
“From the place where the lions roam” – these are the inhabitants of Se’ir the descendants of Esau to whom the blessed Holy One offered the Torah, but they refused to accept it;
“And from the mountains of the puma” – these are the descendants of Ishmael who were also offered the Torah, and they too refused to accept it, as the verse (Deuteronomy 33:2) states at the time of the giving of the Torah:ה’ מִסִּינַי בָּא וְזָרַח מִשֵּׂעִיר לָמוֹ הוֹפִיעַ מֵהַר פָּארָן – God came from Sinai, having shone forth to them from Se’ir, and having appeared from Mount Paran – where the descendants of Ishmael lived. Thus the descendants of Esau in Se’ir and the descendants of Ishmael in Mount Paran were offered the Torah first, but they rejected it.
(Zohar II, 2b-3a)
4:9 The Zohar does not comment on this verse. Our rather unusual translation of the latter half of the verse, “with how you see the oneness of things” is based on the analysis in Likutei Torah, Shir haShirim 29b. “And the love from on High that heartfelt prayer brings” is based on Shomer Emunim; Likutei Torah, Shir haShirim 31a.
4:10 מַה טֹּבוּ דֹדַיִךְ מִיַּיִן – How much better is your love all because of wine
Classic commentaries render this differently: How much better is your love than wine. However the Zohar explains as follows: How much better is your love all because of wine – from that wine that is guarded in the grapes from the six days of Creation that brings joy and makes the face shine and the eyes smile and arouses supernal good will. This is not the wine that intoxicates and provokes wrath, darkening the face and making the eyes flash with anger – the wine of rage. Elsewhere the Zohar explains that the wine referenced here is the secrets of the Torah that have not been revealed to anyone from the day of Creation, but will be revealed to the righteous tsaddikim in the future. Commentaries explain that this refers to the inner dimensions of binah. Nevertheless, as the Zohar goes on to explain, this same wine was offered daily (and also on special occasions) as the wine libation upon the altar, implying that although the full revelation of this wine (the inner dimensions of binah) will only take place in the future, nevertheless, aspects thereof are revealed to those who are worthy, as the Sages put it: נכנס יין יצא סוד – “When the wine goes in, the secrets come out.” Now although the literal explanation of this is that the sign of a person worthy of being a member of the Sanhedrin (the Rabbinical Supreme Court in former times) is that even when he becomes inebriated he will not reveal secrets, numerous mystical interpretations note that the gematria of יי”ן and the gematria of סו”ד (alluding to the secrets of the Torah, called sod) are both 70, indicating that when a person learns Torah for its own sake, as did the rabbis comprising the Sanhedrin, the mysteries of the Torah become revealed to him, as the Mishna in Avos 6:1 states explicitly.
(Zohar I, 70a)
A similar interpretation is offered in another section of the Zohar: The verse (Isaiah 28:7) states: וְגַם אֵלֶּה בַּיַּיִן שָׁגוּ – “For they too have erred because of wine…” and the verse (Leviticus 10:9) also states, יַיִן וְשֵׁכָר אַל תֵּשְׁתְּ אַתָּה וּבָנֶיךָ – “Do not drink wine, you (Aaron) or your sons…” when you enter the Temple to do your service. Although this applies specifically to the Kohen Gadol and other Kohanim engaged in their Temple service, nevertheless, the Sages warn sternly against anyone becoming intoxicated. Why then is wine mentioned here in a positive sense? Rabbi Chiya said: This is the wine of Torah, i.e. the secrets of Torah, hinted to by the gematria they share (=70). Rabbi Chizkiya said: This is alluded to in the verse (Psalms 104:15) וְיַיִן יְשַׂמַּח לְבַב אֱנוֹשׁ – “The wine that gladdens man’s heart…” and this is why it states in our verse “How much better is your love all because of wine” – for the joy of the heart is because of wine – because of the secrets of Torah that fill the heart with joy – more than anything else.
(Zohar II, 124b)
4:10 וְרֵיחַ שְׁמָנַיִךְ מִכָּל בְּשָׂמִים – And the scent of your oils suffused with spice
These are the souls of the righteous tsaddikim that emit a wondrous fragrance, as Rabbi Yitzchak said: the souls of the righteous that were in this world clothed within a body… are all in the higher level of the Garden of Eden, called the Garden of Eden of Yetzirah or of Beriah, and are clothed in the garments produced by the Torah and mitzvot (Commandments) they fulfilled during their life in the world. These garments (i.e. the body and its faculties) became suffused with “a scent pleasing to God” – רֵיחַ נִיחוֹחַ לַה’ (Leviticus 1:9 and numerous other verses), which the Torat Cohanim and Rashi explain as follows: ‘It is pleasing to Me’ because I commanded and My will was done, and these accompany the soul when it departs the body at the time of passing. Now the dedication and intensity with which a person studied Torah and fulfilled the mitzvot, and also whether this was done with self-sacrifice, rather than mere habit, determines which level of the Garden of Eden they rise to after life in this world. However, all those souls that will descend into this world in the future, but did not yet descend, are waiting in a lower level, called the Garden of Eden on Earth – in the World of Asiyah, for they do not have the garments of Torah and mitzvot to lift them to higher levels.
Thus the verse declares that the love the Jewish People express through studying the secrets of the Torah (for those who are worthy thereof) and for fulfilling the mitzvot with great dedication gives great pleasure to the blessed Holy One.
(Zohar II, 11a)
As an introduction to the next piece, note that oil is connected with the ‘secrets of the secrets’ of the Torah. Several explanations of this are given, based on even the physical properties of oil: Oil is the essence of the cell of every living thing; oil does not mix with other liquids, but floats on top of them – even on top of wine (which is compared to the secrets of the Torah, as above); at the same time it permeates everything. The same is true of the essence of Torah, called ‘secrets of the secrets’ – chochmah (wisdom) is the essence of the Torah, as numerous verses allude to; it floats on top of all the other aspects of the Torah (i.e. it is the pinnacle of Torah study); it permeates all aspects of Torah. These ‘secrets of the secrets’ are not expressed in teaching words of wisdom, but rather in certain characteristically Kabbalistic activities, such as yichudim (‘unifications’) and meditations during prayer or learning that unify the holy Names and commute harsh decrees. These are called ‘scented oils.’
Rabbi Shimon said: In the works of earlier generations we find the methodology of the secret of secrets that one must mechaven (have in mind) in order to bind the worlds together in a bond of unity so that the prayers, meditations and kavanot can be willingly received above. There are times when it is necessary to arrange ones prayers properly and to bind the holy Names together and unify them in order to make strict judgments fragrant before their Master, as is proper. Making strict judgment fragrant (also called ‘sweetening the severities’) is Kabbalistic terminology for commuting harsh verdicts to more lenient verdicts, or even commuting them completely in the sense of ‘transforming darkness into light and bitterness into sweetness.’ Rabbi Shimon continues: one must know how to bring about complete unity when reciting the Shema and to cleave open the heavens and open the gates and the doors in a manner that no one will rebuke him for leaving the gates closed to their prayers. How worthy are those righteous tsaddikim who know how to persuade their Master by adorning the Shechinah in a manner than transforms darkness to light, and nullifies evil decrees, enabling the Shechinah to descend into this world, and draw down blessings to the world, and remove and nullify the proponents of severity so that they cannot have control of the world.
(Zohar I, 41a, Heichalot)
4:11 נֹפֶת תִּטֹּפְנָה שִׂפְתוֹתַיִךְ כַּלָּה – Your lips, My bride, drip with nectar
The Zohar does not comment directly on this verse. However, the Zohar does comment on the identical words נֹפֶת תִּטֹּפְנָה – “drip with nectar” in a similar verse (Proverbs 5:3) כִּי נֹפֶת תִּטֹּפְנָה שִׂפְתֵי זָרָה וְחָלָק מִשֶּׁמֶן חִכָּהּ – “The lips of a strange woman drip with nectar; her mouth is smoother than oil”. To understand what the Zohar explains we must preface a teaching of the Arizal: There is a certain aspect of kelipah (the husks of impurity that envelop holiness and lust to feed off it) that is not completely evil and impure, called kelipat nogah (nogah means a dim glow, signifying that it has some light in it, light being a synonym for good, and darkness for evil). Kelipat nogah is thus an in-between level, between light and darkness, and between good and evil. Because there is some good in kelipat nogah, malchut – the sefirah that gives life to the worlds – must perforce sustain it, which allows the completely impure kelipot to also feed off some of that life-force.
The Zohar now explains: By way of kelipat nogah, the other completely impure kelipot – i.e. the forces of evil and impurity – coerce the woman i.e. malchut to infuse life-force via kelipat nogah where the impure kelipot can siphon off this light for their own sustenance. Regarding this the verse states, ‘her mouth – the power of persuasion possessed by the kelipot – is smoother than oil.’ The impure kelipot are compared to a harlot who entices a man to lie with her, for He the blessed Holy One has positioned that light at the place of covenant the brit corresponding to the male organ (yesod in the sefirot). And therefore she the force of impurity sets out to seduce him so that she can receive his light from yesod by means of prostituting the woman malchut, as the verse states, כִּי נֹפֶת תִּטֹּפְנָה שִׂפְתֵי זָרָה – ‘The lips of an alien woman drip with nectar’ so that malchut is enticed into becoming ‘a strange woman’ – a harlot – by convincing yesod to give her life-force that becomes siphoned off by the kelipot.
All this is in regard to ‘an alien woman.’ But the opposite is true of the faithful woman (malchut that does not listen to the blandishments of kelipah, and she remains in holiness). She is the aishet chayil whose lips drip with the nectar of Torah, as the verse (Proverbs 31:26) states, פִּיהָ פָּתְחָה בְחָכְמָה וְתוֹרַת חֶסֶד עַל לְשׁוֹנָהּ – “She opens her mouth with wisdom, and the teachings of kindness are on her tongue…” She manages to achieve this by her modesty as regards the wisdom of Torah, as commentaries on the next section of the verse explain.
(Zohar II, 203b)
4:11 דְּבַשׁ וְחָלָב תַּחַת לְשׁוֹנֵךְ – Honey and milk under your tongue
In his commentary on the section of the Zohar titled Sifra d’Tzniuta (Zohar II, 176b ff.), Rabbi Eliyahu, the GR”A comments: This wisdom – the wisdom of the Sifra d’Tzniuta, which is the wisdom contained within chochmah of the World of Atzilut – may not be revealed to one who is not properly modest, as the Talmud (Kidushin 71a) declares: [“The forty-two letter Name] should not be revealed to anyone other than a modest and humble person…” as Proverbs 11:2 states: וְאֶת צְנוּעִים חָכְמָה – “Wisdom for the modest ones.” [The meaning of ‘modest’ here indicates that] a primary aspect of this wisdom is that it should be concealed, as the Talmud (Chagiga 13a) states on the verse (Proverbs 27:26) כְּבָשִׂים לִלְבוּשֶׁךָ – lamb’s wool for your clothing: [States the Talmud] these are matters that should be concealed from the world at large [as if כְּבָשִׂים ‘lambs’ should be read כְּבוּשִׁים = concealed), as in our verse “Honey and milk under your tongue” – the sweet secrets of the Torah, compared to honey and milk, should be kept ‘under your tongue’ – and should be imparted only to those who are worthy.
4:11 וְרֵיחַ שַׂלְמֹתַיִךְ כְּרֵיחַ לְבָנוֹן – And the scent of your raiment is like the fragrance of Lebanon
Again the Zohar does not comment here, but the Ramak notes that the phrase “the fragrance of Lebanon” signifies an outflow from keter.
4:12 גַּן נָעוּל אֲחֹתִי כַלָּה, גַּל נָעוּל, מַעְיָן חָתוּם – A garden locked up, is My sister, my bride; a source of water set aside; a sealed spring of water that never dried.
גַּן נָעוּל – ‘A garden (gan) locked up’: The word gan alludes to the Written Torah. The explanation is this: the Hebrew word for ‘garden’ is ג”ן, whose numerical value is 53. These are the 53 sidrot weekly readings (or sections) of the Torah i.e. the Five Books of Moses. And the ‘source of water set aside’ alludes to the Oral Torah the interpretation of Scripture which was given to Moshe at the same time the Torah was given to him. Perhaps we can explain that since the Torah is referred to (in Proverbs 3:18) as עֵץ חַיִּים הִיא לַמַּחֲזִיקִים בָּהּ – “She is a Tree of Life to those who hold on to it” as the Talmud explains, therefore it needs ‘water’ – these are the words of the Sages in the Oral Torah that irrigate the tree of Torah and cause it to bear fruit. The word גַּל is also related to the word גִלוּי ‘revelation’ because the Oral Torah reveals the underlying meaning and reasoning etc. of the Written Torah, and thus causes it to bear fruit. Both of these aspects of Torah are alluded to in the letter בּ – the first letter of the first word of the Torah בְּרֵאשִׁית – ‘In the beginning.’ The Zohar explained previously that the ‘beginning’ refers to the sefirah of chochmah, the first manifested sefirah (keter is not counted as the first since it transcends all of the sefirot it is not counted among the immanent sefirot). But there are two aspects of chochmah – the higher chochmah (chochmah ila’a) is concealed within the Written Torah, and the lower aspect of chochmah (chochmah tata’a) in the Oral Torah. And מַעְיָן חָתוּם the ‘sealed spring of water that never dried’ is the word רֵאשִׁית– the beginning called ‘the dot in the palace’ – signified by the dagesh in the letter בּ. We translated the word מַעְיָן here as ‘a spring of water that never dried’ according to the halachic parameters of a spring that is required to remove the deepest spiritual impurity – it must be a source of ‘living water’ i.e. a spring that does not dry up even once in seven years.
Alternatively: Rabbi Yose began his discourse, quoting our verse and explaining as follows: ‘A garden locked up’ – this is Knesset Yisrael the Jewish People as a community who are referred to as ‘a garden locked up’, so that her fruits can only be accessed when she is properly cultivated and tended, as Rabbi Elazar said: Just as a garden needs to be tended and weeded and watered and pruned in order for it to grow and flourish and produce its fruits, so too Knesset Yisrael requires weeding and tending and watering and pruning. She is called a garden and also a vineyard. And just like a vineyard needs weeding and watering and pruning and hoeing, so too Israel, as the verse states, (Isaiah 5:7) כִּי כֶרֶם ה’ צְבָאוֹת בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל – “The vineyard of God is the House of Israel” and it also states (ibid. 5:2) “He placed a fence around it and cleared it of stones…”
(Zohar II, 4a)
גַּל נָעוּל – A source of water set aside: Rabbi Yose began his discourse, citing the verse (Isaiah 10:30) “Raise your voice, Bat‑Galim, listen O Layish; O you poor Anatot…” This verse has already been explained by our circle of Kabbalists, but there is an additional point we need to make – that this verse refers to Knesset Yisrael the same way we expounded the previous verse. This is the meaning of the verse: “Raise your voice, Bat‑Galim” – Bat Galim (ostensibly the name of a place) actually refers to Knesset Yisrael, the daughter of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob who fulfilled as many mitzvot as there are waves (galim) in the sea, as our Sages explain. Although the Zohar mentions only Abraham, Isaac and Jacob are also included implicitly since the Zohar points to the statement of the Sages that lists them explicitly.
Alternatively, galim (the plural of gal) refers to the rivers that flow into the sea and fill it up. Malchut is therefore called Bat Galim just like the sea is the “daughter” (is produced) by the rivers that pour into her and fill her up. Technically, the rivers that flow into the sea are the sefirot (particularly chesed, gevurah and tiferet – representing Abraham, Isaac and Jacob) that pour their light into malchut. They are called galim from the word gilui (revelation), because it is in malchut that they become revealed. And therefore she is called Bat Galim.
(Zohar I, 63a)
מַעְיָן חָתוּם – A sealed spring: Now how is the spring sealed up? With the letter vav so that the letter ב becomes a final mem – ם – sealed on all four sides, unlike the letter bet which is closed on only three sides. This is called ‘sealed wine’ – the wine that is guarded in the grapes from the six days of Creation as mentioned previously. This is the wine the mystical explanation of Torah that is sealed and conserved, so that no foreign influence can enter there. As explained earlier יי”ן and סו”ד have the same gematria = 70. It wasn’t for nothing therefore that the Sages established that wine must be properly sealed when a person sends a container of wine to his friend with a non-Jew, so that the latter will not use it for his idolatrous libations, causing it to blend with the forces of evil.
(Tikunei Zohar Tikun 28, p. 72b)
4:13 The Zohar does not offer commentary on this verse, other than as a continuation of the previous idea that the rivers mentioned above irrigate שְׁלָחַיִךְ “your dry fields” – turning them into pomegranate orchards.
4:14 נֵרְדְּ וְכַרְכֹּם, קָנֶה וְקִנָּמוֹן – Nard and saffron, Lemongrass and cinnamon…
When a person comes to the section of the morning prayers beginning with the word Yishtabach – “may Your Name be praised forever our King…” the blessed Holy One takes that Crown on which all the Holy Names are engraved with which the Jewish People were crowned when they accepted the Torah, and places it before Him, to admire its beauty and to have it ready to place on their heads when they conclude their prayers. Thus the Jewish People begin to rectify themselves in order to present themselves before the supernal King. And they must arouse through their prayers the Thirteen Attributes of Mercy which correspond to the thirteen types of spice mentioned in this verse. Although there are only eight actually mentioned, five more are included by means of the various ribuim mentioned in the verse, such as עִם כָּל (together with) which is mentioned twice, adding another two each, and עֲצֵי לְבוֹנָה is also two – levona is the sap, and atzei is the branch, which is ground into a powder. And that is why there are thirteen type of praise mentioned in the Yishtabach prayer:
שִׁיר – song; וּשְׁבָחָה – praise; הַלֵּל – adoration: וְזִמְרָה – and melody; עֹז – might; וּמֶמְשָׁלָה – and dominion; נֶצַח– victory; גְּדֻלָּה– grandeur; – וּגְבוּרָה power; – תְּהִלָּה glory; וְתִפְאֶרֶת – splendor; – קְדֻשָּׁה holiness. These are twelve, to which the Shechinah מַלְכוּת– sovereignty must then be attached, bringing it to 13.
(Zohar II, 132a)
Alternatively, those thirteen types of spices down below in this world have their root above in the Garden of Eden, in the chamber called Ohalot (which is also the name of a spice). It is there that the ‘garments’ of the soul i.e. the mitzvot that are done in thought, speech and deed, are cleansed and perfumed, and the souls ascending to the Garden of Eden are clothed in them, commensurate with the good deeds the person did in this world.
(Zohar II, 210a)
4:15 מַעְיַן גַּנִּים, בְּאֵר מַיִם חַיִּים, וְנֹזְלִים מִן לְבָנוֹן – A garden spring, a well of living water, a stream flowing from Lebanon
מַעְיַן גַּנִּים – A garden spring: Just as a tree does not grow without water, so too the Israelites, who are branches of the tree, the Tree of Life, do not grow without the flow of water from the Torah. This is the secret of the words מַעְיַן גַּנִּים בְּאֵר מַיִם חַיִּים – a garden spring, a well of living water, which is chochmah, while the ‘garden’ alludes to the gan ג”ן = 53 sedras (weekly reading) of the Torah.
(Tikunei Zohar Tikun 52, p. 90a)
Rabbi Abahu said: Moshe Rabeinu (Moses) was emanated from the supernal radiance. Yehoshua (Joshua) was emanated from Moshe. The 70 Elders were emanated from Yehoshua. The Prophets were emanated from the Elders. The Princes of the Tribes and the leaders of the people were emanated from the Prophets – each from the other.
While they were traveling they met up with Rabbi Elazar. They remarked: “One of the Masters of the Academy just arrived.” They said to him: “Certainly you have mentioned that the light of the sun technically referring to ze’ir anpin derives its light from the radiance of the luminary above binah.”
“Indeed that is so,” he replied.
Then he began explaining: The verse states, “A garden spring, a well of living water, a stream flowing from Lebanon.” First it is called a spring, then a well, and then a stream, all in the same verse! This needs to be examined. The Kabbalistic explanation is this: The spring malchut is drawn from the well yesod, and the well from the stream the main sefirot of ze’ir anpin – chesed through hod, and the stream from Lebanon chochmah and binah, since לבנון (Lebanon) is a composite of ל”ב – the ‘lev’ netivot of chochmah (the paths through which the light of chochmah illuminates binah) and נו”ן – the nun (50) sha’arei binah. This is to inform you that one is drawn from the other, and so on. And so too is it with the sun ze’ir anpin – its radiance is not from itself, but is drawn from a ray from binah that illuminates the sun.
Accordingly, it seems that the Zohar deduces from this verse that the process of transmission from one level to another applies whether we are talking about the chaining down of the sefirot or whether we are talking about the transmission of prophecy.
(Zohar Chadash, 63a)
Alternatively, another section of the Zohar explains: מַעְיַן גַּנִּים refers to Abraham, בְּאֵר מַיִם חַיִּים refers to Yitzchak, and וְנֹזְלִים מִן לְבָנוֹן refers to Yaakov, who were also derived one from the other.
(Zohar I, 135b)
4:16 עוּרִי צָפוֹן וּבוֹאִי תֵימָן הָפִיחִי גַנִּי יִזְּלוּ בְשָׂמָיו יָבֹא דוֹדִי לְגַנּוֹ וְיֹאכַל פְּרִי מְגָדָיו – Awaken north wind, and come [wind] from the south; blow upon My garden, and its fragrance will spread out.
Rabbi Abahu said: A person must examine his deeds and revisit them daily since the blessed Holy One gave him a pure soul with which to come to know and recognize his Creator and gaze upon His wonders that He performs on a daily basis…
The north wind in Israel blows from midnight to morning… Said Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai: At that time the blessed Holy One emerges so to speak – technically this is the emergence of the light of ze’ir anpin – from the myriads of supernal worlds that He loves i.e. where His love is revealed and He comes (so to speak) to delight in the righteous tsaddikim in the Garden of Eden. A voice then makes an announcement before Him: ‘Awaken north wind and come wind from the south’ – meaning to say, awaken north wind… and arouse yourself to come to the world and blow upon the spices of Eden in order to cause their scent to spread forth. This is the meaning of ‘blow upon My garden, and its fragrance will spread out.’
(Zohar Chadash, Bereishit 13b)
The explanation of the above paragraph can be found elsewhere in Zohar
At the time that the blessed Holy One arouses Himself to visit the Garden of Eden to delight there in the souls of the righteous tsaddikim, a supernal angelic voice announces: “Awaken north wind, and come [wind] from the south; blow upon My garden, and its fragrance will spread out. May my Beloved come to His garden and partake of the sweet fruits of Eden.’ What does the phrase ‘partake of the sweet fruits of Eden’ mean? These are the souls of righteous tsaddikim who have sacrificed themselves to the blessed Holy One. This is not meant in the sense of actual sacrifices on the altar, but rather in the sense of complete and willing submission to the Divine Will and the Divine plan. And this is at midnight, for it is at different hours that the actual daily sacrifices are offered, not at midnight, but from dawn on.
The implication is that the souls of tsaddikim are the sweet fruits in which the blessed Holy One delights.
(Zohar II, 36b)
 As Metzudat Tzion renders it. Cf. Isaiah 47:2
 This is the ketiv (the way it is written in the original), but it is read (the kri) as בְּאַחַת
 Translation based on Midrash Lekach Tov on the verse.
 Cf. Exodus 26:18, 35 etc. where the translation of תימנה is ‘the south side.’
 Zohar II, 244b-262b. See also Rabbi Yishmael’s Heichalot.
 The seven heichalot are: 1) Livnat haSapir; 2) Etem haShamayim; 3) Nogah; 4) Zechut; 5) Ahava; 6) Ratzon; 7) Kodesh haKodoshim. Note that corresponding to and opposing these seven haichalot are seven impure heichalot from ‘the other side.’
 Matok MiDevash.
 See Eruvin end 21b; Shir haShirim Rabba on the verse, and in Zohar II, 116a; Zohar III, 140a.
 The previous passage in the Zohar makes clear that we are talking about Atik Yomin. Ateret Tzvi (and following him Matok MiDevash) explains this as referring to Arich Anpin. However, it seems that the intention here must be Atik Yomin, since only of Atik does the Zohar (vol. III, 129a) state: לית שמאלא בהאי עתיקא – ‘there is no left side [harshness, severity] in Atik’ specifically, but not of Arich.
 עיני העדה. See Numbers 15:24; Ta’anit 24a, Rashi – “These are the Sages who light up the eyes of the community.”
 Arizal, Sha’ar HaPesukim on this verse.
 Talmud Nedarim 38a; Tanchuma, Zot HaBracha 1:1.
 Idra Rabba Zohar III, 130a.
 במדבר (יד, יד): כִּי אַתָּה ה’ בְּקֶרֶב הָעָם הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר עַיִן בְּעַיִן נִרְאָה אַתָּה ה’
 Arizal, Sha’ar HaPesukim on this verse.
 This is the fourth and highest level of soul recognized in the Zohar. The Arizal describes an even loftier level, yechidah, which is ‘a spark of the Creator within the created.’ See Eitz Chaim, Sha’ar 42, chap 1; R. Chaim Vital’s Shaarei Kedusha, part 3, ch. 5.
 Tanchuma, Korach 11.
 See Seder HaDorot..
 Note that the gematria (numerical value) of מ”י mi is 50, alluding to the ‘fifty gates of binah’ (see Talmud Rosh HaShana 21b; Zohar I, 105a; Shaarei Orah, sha’ar 10; Sefer Ha-Ikarim 2:12 etc.
 מַלְכוּת פֶּה תּוֹרָה שֶׁבְּעַל פֶּה קָרִינָן לָהּ
 בִּינָה לִבָּא וּבָהּ הַלֵּב מֵבִין
 Mikdash Melech.
 Mikdash Melech, Commentaries.
 The identical idea is presented in Eruvin 19a: אַל תִּיקְרֵי ״רַקָּתֵךְ״ אֶלָּא ״רֵיקָתֵיךְ״, שֶׁאֲפִילּוּ רֵיקָנִין שֶׁבָּךְ מְלֵיאִין מִצְוֹת כְּרִמּוֹן and in several Midrashim, including Bereishit Rabba 32:10
 Zohar I, 58b.
 Talmud Berachot 34b; Sanhedrin 99a.
 שבת פח, א: מלמד שהתנה הקב”ה עם מעשה בראשית ואמר להם אם ישראל מקבלים התורה אתם מתקיימין ואם לאו אני מחזיר אתכם לתוהו ובוהו
 The nameשד”י is often viewed as an abbreviation of notarikon – שאמר לעולמו די (He said to His world, ‘Enough!’).
 See I Kings 8:48 וְהִתְפַּלְלוּ אֶל ה’ דֶּרֶךְ הָעִיר אֲשֶׁר בָּחַרְתָּ בָּהּ, וְהַבַּיִת אֲשֶׁר בָּנִתִי לִשְׁמֶךָ
 Onkelos renders the verse לֹא יִהְיֶה כְלִי גֶבֶר עַל אִשָּׁה וְלֹא יִלְבַּשׁ גֶּבֶר שִׂמְלַת אִשָּׁה (Deuteronomy 22:5) asלָא יְהֵי תִקּוּן זֵין דִּגְבַר עַל אִתְּתָא וְלָא יְתַקֵּן גְּבַר בְּתִקּוּנֵי אִתְּתָא
 On the verse regarding the manna (Numbers 11:8):וְהָיָה טַעְמוֹ כְּטַעַם לְשַׁד הַשָּׁמֶן the Sifri on the verse states:
מה הדד [=שַׁד] הזה לתינוק עיקר והכל טפילה לו…
 Note that this verse is partially a repetition of the verse in 2:17. So we have repeated part of that commentary, with some additions explaining other words in our verse.
 Matok MiDevash.
 Psalms 90:4 “A thousand years in Your eyes are but a bygone yesterday…”
 Mishnah Sanhedrin 3:6
 Talmud, Sanhedrin 17a.
 Mishnah Sanhedrin 3:6
 Contrast this with Rashi’s interpretation of the verse: “With Me come from Lebanon My bride…” referring to the exile from the Holy Land when God says to the Israelites, “Come with Me into exile” for as long as the Israelites are in exile, the Shechinah is in exile too. (See Talmud, Megilla 29a: Rabbi Shimon ben Yochai taught: Come and see how beloved the Israelites are to the blessed Holy One, for to wherever they are exiled, the Shechinah accompanies them.)
 Thus the name יצחק is interpreted as יהי צחוק – ‘there will be rejoicing and laughter.’
 This expression is found in numerous places, including Sifri (Deut. 6):
אין לבנון אלא בית המקדש, שנאמר (ירמיהו כב, ו) גלעד אתה לי ראש הלבנון, ואומר (ישעי’ י, לד) והלבנון באדיר יפול, דבר אחר למה קורים אותו לבנון, שמלבין עוונותיהם של ישראל, שנא’ (ישעי’ א, יח) אם יהיו חטאיכם כשני כשלג ילבינו.
Talmud Yoma 39b: אמר רבי יצחק בן טבלאי למה נקרא שמו לבנון, שמלבין עונותיהן של ישראל
 Note that here the verse refers to the blessed Holy One speaking to the Shechinah, and the interpretation of the entire verse requires a different translation.
 Talmud Shabbat 88a:
בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהִקְדִּימוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל ״נַעֲשֶׂה״ לְ״נִשְׁמָע״ בָּאוּ שִׁשִּׁים רִיבּוֹא שֶׁל מַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת, לְכׇל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל קָשְׁרוּ לוֹ שְׁנֵי כְתָרִים, אֶחָד כְּנֶגֶד ״נַעֲשֶׂה״ וְאֶחָד כְּנֶגֶד ״נִשְׁמָע״.
 See Pirkei Avot 6:2:
ואומר (שמות לב טז): “וְהַלֻּחֹת מַעֲשֵׂה אֱלֹהִים הֵמָּה וְהַמִּכְתָּב מִכְתַּב אֱלֹהִים הוּא חָרוּת עַל הַלֻּחֹת”, אל תקרא חָרוּת אלא חֵירוּת, שאין לך בן חורין אלא מי שעוסק בתלמוד תורה!
 ד”ה לבבתני באחד מעיניך
 מאמר פתחו שערים פרק יט
 Ralbag; Metzudat David; Malbim et al.
 See Talmud Berachot 34b; Sanhedrin 99a; Zohar I, Midrash haNe’elam 135b.
 Zohar I, Midrash haNe’elam 135b; Commentaries.
 See Numbers 28:7-8, 14.
 Talmud Eruvin 55a; Sanhedrin 38a.
 אבות (ו, א): רבי מאיר אומר כל העוסק בתורה לשמה, זוכה לדברים הרבה… ומגלין לו רזי תורה
 See e.g. Esther Rabba 5:1; Vayikra Rabba 12:1; Tanchuma, Shmini 1:5.
 See Ramaz, Zohar Bereishit p. 721; Sefer Gerushin (Ramak); Shaarei Kedusha (R. Chaim Vital) 3:2.
 See Avot 6:9:
בשעת פטירתו של אדם אין מלוין לו לאדם לא כסף ולא זהב ולא אבנים טובות ומרגליות, אלא תורה ומעשים טובים בלבד, שנאמר (משלי ו, כב): “בהתהלכך תנחה אותך בשכבך תשמור עליך והקיצות היא תשיחך”.
 Shaat Ratzon on Zohar I, p. 38a; See Ramaz, Zohar Bereishit pp. 283, 930, 993; Arizal, Sha’ar HaTefillah p. 54b
 This phrase רזי רזין (secrets of the secrets) is mentioned numerous times in Zohar e.g. vol. I, 41a; III 128a; Zohar Chadash (Margolios) 56b, 57a etc., and is even a section of the Zohar, e.g. Zohar II, 70b, 71a, 71b, 72a, 72b etc.
 Imrei Binah (R. Dovber of Lubavitch) Sha’ar haKeriat Shema chap. 54 ff.
 The cytoplasm has oil-like properties.
 Mishnah Tevul Yom 2:5; Shemot Rabba 36:1; Rambam Tumat Ochlin 8:10.
 See Talmud Chulin 97a; Shulchan Aruch, Yoreh De’ah 105:5.
 E.g. דברים (ד, ו) כִּי הִוא חָכְמַתְכֶם וּבִינַתְכֶם…; משלי (ב, ב) כִּי ה’ יִתֵּן חָכְמָה מִפִּיו דַּעַת וּתְבוּנָה; (שם ח, יא) כִּי טוֹבָה חָכְמָה מִפְּנִינִים וְכָל חֲפָצִים לֹא יִשְׁווּ בָהּ; (שם יג, יד) תּוֹרַת חָכָם מְקוֹר חַיִּים…
 See e.g. Talmud Menachot 85b: וישלח יואב תקועה ויקח משם אשה חכמה מאי שנא תקועה אמר רבי יוחנן מתוך שרגילין בשמן זית חכמה מצויה בהן
 Or ‘order’ – סִדוּרָא
 Zohar I, 4a.
 Ramak and Commentaries.
 However, the Zohar (Zohar Chadash Margolios 45b; 28b in Midrash haNe’elam) does bring this as a proof verse in other contexts, without illuminating our verse any further.
 Eitz Chaim 49:8.
 Sefer Gerushin para. 63.
 Berachot 39b: אֵין עֵץ חַיִּים אֶלָּא תּוֹרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״עֵץ חַיִּים הִיא לַמַּחֲזִיקִים בָּהּ״
 Mishnah Para 8:9: הַמַּיִם הַמְכַזְּבִים, פְּסוּלִין [לְמֵי חטאת]. אֵלּוּ הֵם הַמַּיִם הַמְכַזְּבִים, הַמְכַזְּבִים אֶחָד בַּשָּׁבוּעַ…
 See Zohar I, 249b.
 Talmud Sanhedrin 94b: בת גלים בתו של אברהם יצחק ויעקב שעשו מצות כגלי הים
 Pardes Rimonim 23:3.
 See Talmud Berachot 34b; Sanhedrin 99a; Zohar I, Midrash haNe’elam 135b.
 See Talmud Avodah Zara 31b.
 Following Rashi.
 Talmud, Shabbat 88a:
בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהִקְדִּימוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל ״נַעֲשֶׂה״ לְ״נִשְׁמָע״ בָּאוּ שִׁשִּׁים רִיבּוֹא שֶׁל מַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת, לְכׇל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל קָשְׁרוּ לוֹ שְׁנֵי כְתָרִים, אֶחָד כְּנֶגֶד ״נַעֲשֶׂה״ וְאֶחָד כְּנֶגֶד ״נִשְׁמָע״.
 The Talmud notes in various places that the letter ו and words such as גם come to include additional individuals or instances.
 Note that this section does not appear in Ramak’s Ohr Yakar.